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It is bordered on the north by the Gulf of Aden, on the east by the Indian Ocean, on the southwest by Kenya, and on the west and northwest by Ethiopia and Djibouti.At approximately 246,200 square miles (637,658 square kilometers), Somalia is about the size of Texas.Punt is also mentioned in the Bible, and ancient Romans called it Cape Aromatica.Somalia is named for the legendary father of the Somali people, Samaal (or Samale).These included Mogadishu, established as the first Arab settlement in East Africa.The city was at the height of its influence and wealth during the thirteenth century, when it controlled the gold trade on the East African coast. They joined with the Arabs in fighting the Islamic holy wars against Ethiopian Christians in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.The Karkaar Mountains extend from Somalia's northwestern border to the eastern tip of the Horn of Africa, with the highest point, Shimber Berris, at 7,900 feet (2,408 meters).South of the mountain ranges, a central plateau known as the Haud extends to the Shabeelle River and westward into the Ogaden region of eastern Ethiopia.
By the tenth century, Arab trading posts thrived in southern Somalia, along the Indian Ocean.
Its coastline extends about 1,800 miles (2,896 kilometers).
Somalia is hot for much of the year, with two wet and two dry seasons.
Vegetation is generally sparse, except in the area between the Jubba and the Shabeelle Rivers in south-central Somalia.
A semiarid plain called the Guban runs parallel to the northern coast of Somalia.