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Despite alliances, collaborations and interdependencies that were played globally, many crucial events that were set on Japanese territory must be taken into consideration. The Japanese video game industry is both a global and local phenomenon, and the two aspects must be distinguished in order to avoid misinterpretations and omissions in histories of video games. foundational developments in the computer industry and at university research institutes -- all subsidized by the military-space complex” (Kline et al., 2003, p. 86), the emergence of a video game industry in Japan has developed in a different context. xiii) that cannot be reduced uniquely to a model of globalization. The Japanese video game industry is at the intersection of local innovations in marketing strategies -- in part in a context commonly called themedia mix, which is itself linked to a broader context of a consumption culture that has risen up from contemporary, and some would say postmodern (Azuma, 2007, 2009), Japan -- national industrial transformations -- whereas the Japanese video game industry is at the crossing of electronics, computer, amusement and content industries in Japan -- and technological and artistic developments -- from the hardware to the software -- in which some aspects were, subsequently or synchronously, established globally and under an increasingly transnational mode, all forming a particular media ecology or system, that I name “geemu”.
Their products circulate across transcultural and global flows, and video games’ contents are now better understood as complex flux as opposed to national or even cultural manifestations (Consalvo, 2006). It was through the already established Japanese electronics and toy corporations that the arcade, home console, and personal computer markets were established. Then, the examination focus on the implementation of these three sectors in the Japanese video game industry, which have, each in their own way, deeply affected the evolution of video games, not only in Japan, but also in international markets. This aforementioned discourse nevertheless underlies an assumption firmly rooted in video game studies and historical accounts of video games: it is as if the only manifestation of the Japanese video game industry had been made on a global level, while the specific development of the industry on the Japanese territory had never existed. Unfortunately, these assumptions tend to neglect the complex geopolitical and socioeconomic negotiations taking place on Japanese territory -- before, during, and even after the creation of a global media complex -- forming tangible distinctions between the Japanese and the North American (or European) market as each tries to divert and capture these flows.