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By the mid-19th century, more and more were appearing in Afrikaans, which was very much still regarded as a set of regional dialects. The first Afrikaans grammars and dictionaries were published in 1875 by the The Afrikaner religion had stemmed from the Protestant practices of the Reformed church of Holland during the 17th century, later on being influenced in South Africa by British ministries during the 1800s had its origins with the Synod of Dordrecht of 1618 and was thus in an archaic form of Dutch. Hoogehout, Arnoldus Pannevis, and Stephanus Jacobus du Toit were the first Afrikaans Bible translators. A few words in standard English are derived from Afrikaans, such as aardvark (lit.
This was hard for Dutch and Cape Dutch speakers to understand, and increasingly unintelligible for Afrikaans speakers. Important landmarks in the translation of the Scriptures were in 1878 with C. Hoogehout's translation of the (Gospel of Mark, lit. "earth pig"), trek ("pioneering journey", in Afrikaans lit.
Many free and enslaved women married, cohabited with, or were victims of sexual violence from the male Dutch settlers. Some consider this the origin of the ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, who adopted various forms of speech utilising a Dutch vocabulary.
Sarah Grey Thomason and Terrence Kaufman argue that Afrikaans' development as a separate language was "heavily conditioned by nonwhites who learned Dutch imperfectly as a second language." Beginning in about 1815, Afrikaans started to replace Malay as the language of instruction in Muslim schools in South Africa, written with the Arabic alphabet: see Arabic Afrikaans. Afrikaans belongs to its own West Germanic sub-group, the Low Franconian languages.
The linguist Paul Roberge suggested the earliest 'truly Afrikaans' texts are doggerel verse from 1795 and a dialogue transcribed by a Dutch traveller in 1825. In 1983, a fresh translation marked the 50th anniversary of the 1933 version and provided a much-needed revision. Afrikaans has been influential in the development of South African English.
Printed material among the Afrikaners at first used only standard European Dutch. Meurant published his Abu Bakr Effendi also compiled his Arabic Afrikaans Islamic instruction book between 18, although this was only published and printed in 1877. Many Afrikaans loanwords have found their way into South African English, such as (American "sneakers", British "trainers", Canadian "runners").
The new policy means that the use of Afrikaans is now often reduced in favour of English, or to accommodate the other official languages.
In 1996, for example, the South African Broadcasting Corporation reduced the amount of television airtime in Afrikaans, while South African Airways dropped its Afrikaans name from its livery.
Rather, Afrikaans was described derogatorily as ‘a kitchen language’ or as ‘a bastard jargon', suitable for communication mainly between the Boers and their servants." in which 'Dutch' was "declared to include Afrikaans". Afrikaans was also a medium of instruction for schools in Bophuthatswana, an Apartheid-era Bantustan.Modern Dutch and Afrikaans share over 90 percent of their vocabulary.Afrikaans speakers are able to learn Dutch within a comparatively short time.African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans.The slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India, Madagascar, and the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia). Valkhoff argued that 75% of children born to female slaves in the Dutch Cape Colony between 16 had a Dutch father.